Provide a simple definition of the following termsand concepts1. Japanese stilt grass Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) The effects of soil flooding on the establishment of cogongrass     (Imperata cylindrica), a nonindigenous invader of the southeastern United States (abstract). McFayden, R. E. C. 1998. 1979. It has become established in the southeastern United States within the last fifty years, with Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida having extensive acreage of roadway and pasture infested with cogongrass. Cogon grass has been reported as a weed in 73 countries and on all six continents. Chase, and E. R. R. L. Johnson. Sajise, P. E. and J. S. Lales. Proceedings of BIOTROP Workshop on     Alang-alang, Bogor, Indonesia, 27-29 July 1976. Explanation: sana makatolong. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. = Orseoliellia javanica). Evidence of frequent hybridization between the two species has been observed (Gabel, 1982), and all seed produced by crossing the two species in a study by McDonald germinated (Shilling et al., 1997). major in the United States are a likely source of genetic variation in the growth potential and range of different populations and ecotypes present in the United States (Patterson et al., 1980; Gabel, 1982). Cogon grass invasion by seed may therefore be limited by excessive moisture in the spring, during early seedling development. 1999. Log in. Fungal Databases. 4). Dahlgren, R. M. T., H. T. Clifford, and P. F. Yeo. For newer patches, tillage can eliminate cogongrass from an area if continued during the course of a growing season. Join now. Secondly, DNA fingerprinting (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) should be used to identify the native range of U.S. cogon grass varieties. 1999. Kew Bulletin     27: 457-474. Systematic Botany and Mycology     Laboratory. Fact Sheet. CABI International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. biology,     ecology and control in Florida –1994. Imperata cylindrica var. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. cogon grass. In Indonesia, the highest degree of gall-midge infestation on I. cylindrica was observed from 250 to 300 m. Females can produce from 200 to 560 eggs, which hatch two to three days after being laid and have a 98% viability rate (Soerjani, 1970; Mangoendihardjo, 1975). Applications of spore suspensions of this fungus failed to kill whole plants, but it may be possible to enhance disease severity with the addition of yeast or other amendments. Mangoendihardjo, S. and M. Soerjani. Fertile, intergeneric hybrids have been procured by crossing species of Imperata with those of Saccharum (Gabel, 1982; Watson and Dallwitz, 1992). Once established, cogon grass becomes increasingly tolerant of flooding. Allelopathy in a mixture of Cogon (Imperata cylindrica) and     Stylosanthes guyanensis. Rhizome biomass can reach 40 tons of fresh weight per hectare (Terry et al., 1997; English, 1998), and regrowth potential of roots is a critical issue in development of control methodologies, including biological control. 1993. American Journal of Botany 87(9):     1279-1286. At least 100,000 ha. 3: Use the diagram showing the relationship among cursistance and voltage. Population dynamics of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica. The energy transformation in photosynthesis is from light energy toChernice energy.4. Biological invasions: stemming the tide in Florida. These include use for thatch, forage, erosion control, paper making, and bedding material for livestock. Distribution and control of cogongrass (Imperata     cylindrica) in Mississippi. Ph.D.     dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. B. Internal Report, CIBC Sabah Substation, Tuaran, Malaysia. In Proceedings Cogongrass Workshop. 3). Weed Science 36: 577-582. It was also brought in and distributed by the U.S.D.A. 2000a. (Pteromalidae), Euplemes sp. The initial tillage should begin in the spring (March through May) with an implement that inverts the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches. No releases have been made of any natural enemies. Other genera in Saccharinae include Erianthus Michx. HABITAT: Cogongrass is a hardy species, tolerant of shade, high salinity, moisture and drought. While cogon grass is tolerant of wide variations in soil fertility, organic matter, and moisture, it grows best in relatively acidic soils (pH 4.7) (Hubbard et al., 1944; Wilcut et al., 1988a). Agroforestry Systems 36: 151-179. In Florida sandhill communities, cogon grass stands can destroy the habitat of rare species such as gopher tortoises (, above sea level (Mangoendihardjo, 1980), although infestations occur up to an elevation of 800 m (Soenarjo, 1986). [  Contents  ]   Further development of these two fungi as bioherbicides is continuing, but neither fungus is host specific. Syed, R. A. Synonyms . Effects of Temperature, photoperiod, and population     source on the growth of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). It can take several years to eradicate a single patch of cogongrass as there are no silver bullets or magic tank-mixes that result in 100% kill after only one application of herbicide. Wildland Weeds 1(3): 14-15. 2:26 1792) and species (Imperata cylindrica [L.] Beauv., Ess. Seed viability is highest for seeds less than three months old (Shilling et al., 1997). major, hybrids might exhibit both invasiveness and cold tolerance, allowing for significant range extension to the north and west (Shilling et al., 1997). Rhizomes are very resistant to heat and breakage, and may penetrate soil up to 1.2 m deep, but generally occur in the top 0.15 m in heavy clay soils, and 0.4 m of sandy soils (Holm et al., 1977; Bryson and Carter, 1993). Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, Jakarta,     Indonesia. Biological Control of Weeds. Outside the United States, 66 pathogens (primarily fungi), 42 insects, two nematodes, and one mite have been found on I. cylindrica. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). Additionally, several species of the genera Miscanthus and Microstegium have been introduced into the eastern United States. It is widely distributed in Africa, Australia, southern Asia, and the Pacific Islands, and less extensively distributed, or a less serious problem, in southern Europe, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States (Fig. Gagné, R. J. (1976), and Ammar et al. Outside of the United States, cogon grass has been reported as a problem in more than 35 annual and perennial crops, including rubber, coconut, oil palm, coffee, date, tea, citrus, forests, field crops (rice), and row crops (corn) (Holm et al., 1977; Brook, 1989; Waterhouse, 1999). Differences in the areas of origin of the various introductions of I. cylindrica var. Biology, ecology, and distribution of Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.],. Lippincott, C. L. 1997. Soenarjo, E. 1986. Shilling, D. G. and J. F. Gaffney. Evans, H. C. 1987. Cogongrass in Alabama after sixty years. This study adds observational detail to growth of cogon grass rhizomes and provides for a mechanism by which cogon grass is able to perforate other species of plants. B. M. S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Bureau of     Plant Industry, Mississippi State, Mississippi, USA. Brooklyn Botanical     Garden, Brooklyn, New York. The Plant-feeding Gall Midges of North America. Weed Technology 4: 658-660. Schmitz, D. C. and T. C. Brown (project directors). Restoration and Management Notes 13(2): 227. 1995. - 3435773 1. The subfamilies and tribes of the Gramineae (Poaceae) in the southeastern     United States. Colletotrichum caudatum, a potential bioherbicide for control of Imperata cylindrica,     pp. It is established at some locations in Louisiana, South Carolina (Allen et al., 1991; Bryson and Carter, 1993), southern Georgia (Byrd and Bryson, 1999; Coile, pers. Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. This field guide describes and illustrates these characteristics and compares them to other grass species common found in similar habitats. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Alang-alang gall midge potential as an alternate host for parasitoids. Eussen, J. H. H. 1979. In addition to being highly competitive, the rhizomes of cogon grass may physically injure other plants and appear to be allelopathic in certain situations (Brook, 1989; Bryson and Carter, 1993). Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.)Beauv.) The genus Imperata belongs to the tribe Andropogoneae, in the subtribe Saccharinae Griseb. Cogongrass in     the United States: History, ecology, impacts, and management. INTRODUCTION. Acarologia 20: 556-562. Definition of Terms. Living Organisms: All living organisms are classified in one of these kingdoms: animals, plants, fungi, monera, and protists. 6 In Europe, America, and Australia up to 70% of patients with type I allergy display IgE reactivity to grass pollen allergens. Gainesville, Florida, USA. state -2 nation -government -so Thirdly, intensive surveys of natural enemies of the native I. brevifolia in the southwestern United States might yield indigenous biological control agents able to attack I. cylindrica if introduced into the southeast. Zaher, M. A., and B. Despite the importance of the problems caused by cogon grass throughout the tropical areas of the world, biological control efforts have been few and rather piecemeal (Caunter, 1996). for use as a forage grass and for soil erosion control. Write youranswer However, preliminary, limited surveys of I. brevifolia in 2000 failed to identify any potentially useful natural enemies. Success of segment regeneration is determined by the original location of the segment on the rhizome, including proximity to, or inclusion of, axillary and apical buds, as well as environmental conditions (Holm et al., 1977; Wilcut et al., 1988a; Gaffney, 1996; English, 1998). Moosavi-nia, H. and J. Dore. (1944) recognized five varieties of I. cylindrica worldwide: major, africana, europaea, latifolia, and condensata, with the most widely distributed variety, major, occurring in the United States. Weekly USGS science for the week of May 31, 1999.     http://in.water.usgs.gov/, (accessed December 27, 1999). (1985) placed Imperata in the Saccharum Group, including Saccharum L., Imperata, and Eulaliopsis Honda. Extent of losses. Minno, M. C. and M. Minno. Cogon grass has invaded a variety of habitats, from highly xeric uplands to fully shaded mesic sites. Test your knowledge. 1970. Chen, P., J. Zheng, and D. Peng. (ed.). PLANTS Database. Wetlands 20: 2. 1 Cogongrass is an aggressive, rhizomatous, perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Infestation by O. javanica is likely to reduce photosynthesis due to leaf blade reduction, leading to lower rhizome carbohydrate reserves. 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